BMP (Bitmapped)
A computerized image made up of dots or pixels. While satisfactory for pixel-based screen displays, bitmap images give a jagged appearance on paper or film. For high-quality print output, bitmap images must be translated to raster images.

Chevrons
The top and bottom shapes of the Dana Diamond. They should not be modified or recreated. Dictionary: a figure, pattern, or object having the shape of a V or an inverted V.

Clear Space
Open area around the Dana Diamond. The minimum distance surrounding the Diamond which must remain clear of other
imagery.

CMYK Image
A four-channel image containing (C)yan, (M)agenta, (Y)ellow, and blac(K) channels. Generally used to print a 4-color separation (used in full-color printing).

Color Correction
The editing of the pixel colors in an image, including adjusting brightness, contrast, mid-level grays, hue, and saturation to achieve optimum printed results.

Color Proof
Typically the last visual representation seen before printing a document. Used for checking color accuracy and other graphic elements. Should be thoroughly reviewed.

Color Separation
The process of making individual pieces of film output for each printing color.

Continuous-tone Image
A grayscale (black and white) image containing gradient tones ranging from black to white. This image does not contain dots as found in a halftone.

Copyright
The right to prevent copying of an original work.

Corporate Colors
“Dana Blue” and black. Each color plays an important role in the company’s Branding and Identity Standards.

Corporate Mark (logo)
Cornerstone of the Dana identity system and an integral element of all organizational signatures. The corporate mark, also referred to as the Dana Diamond, consists of the Dana logotype and top and bottom chevrons.

DCS (Desktop Color Separation)
A file format that creates four-color separations.

DPI (Dots Per Inch)
A measure of image resolution pertaining primarily (but not exclusively) to photographs. The more dots per inch, the more digital information. The more digital information, the larger the image may be reproduced OR the finer the line screen that may be used OR both. Measured in kilobytes (smaller) and megabytes (larger).

Dana Blue
Internal name representing the corporate color. It does not have a formula as it can be achieved by using one of two approved formulas.

Dana Font Family
Also referred to as Dana fonts. These include the Helvetica Neue family (all but the lightest weights), the Times New Roman family, and Arial, Arial Italic, and Arial Bold.

Dana Logotype
The letters “DANA” within chevrons of the corporate mark. This logotype should not be modified, replaced, or altered in any way.

Diamond Border
The border is the white line surrounding the Dana Diamond on the full-color “A1” version of the corporate mark. It should not be modified or recreated.

EPS (Encapsulated PostScript)
Pronounced as separate letters, EPS is the graphics file format used by the PostScript language. EPS files can be either binary or ASCII. The term EPS usually implies that the file contains a bitmapped representation of the graphics for display purposes. In contrast, PostScript files (without encapsulation) include only the PostScript commands for printing the graphic. EPS files can be imported into most desktop publishing software.

Flush Left, Rag Right
A typographic specification indicating that copy will appear aligned on the left margin and will break naturally on the right, giving a ragged appearance to the right margin.

Font
A font differs from a typeface. An example of a typeface would be Times New Roman. An example of a specific font related to that typeface would be 12 pt Times New Roman Bold Italic. Another font would be 10 pt Times New Roman Medium Italic. The term “font” is often mistakenly used in place of the term “typeface”.

Four-color Process Printing
The basic method of recreating a broad spectrum of colors on a printing press. For more, see definition for color
separation.

Full Justification
A typographic specification indicating that text will appear aligned to the left and right margins, giving an even appearance.

GIF (CompuServe Graphics Interchange Format)
For web. GIF files are relatively small and adequate for line art: e.g., simple logos, etc.

Grayscale Image
An image consisting of up to 256 levels of gray, simulating a continuous-tone image.

Halftone
The reproduction of a continuous-tone grayscale image made by using a screen that breaks the image into dots of
various sizes.

Highlight
The lightest part of an image (grayscale or CMYK), represented by the smallest dots or the absence of dots.

Hue
The main attribute of a color that distinguishes it from other colors.

Identity
The Dana image, its characteristics and uniqueness. How we present ourselves to all audiences.

Image Resolution
The amount of data stored in an image file, measured in pixels per inch (ppi).

Interpolation
A technique for increasing the size of a graphic file by creating pixels mathematically. This generally relates to
changing the file’s pixel resolution.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
JPEG is a compressed format designed to create files of various sizes with minimal (but some) loss of quality. JPEGs are superior to GIFs for photos or graphics that contain gradients and/or color blends. JPEGs are geared for on-screen viewing and are not recommended for use in generating films or plates for offset printing.

LPI (Lines Per Inch)
A measure of screen frequency in halftone or CMYK images. The more lines per inch, the smoother the appearance. If
lpi increases, there must be enough digital information (measured in dpi) to support the increase.

Logotype
The insignia or specific graphic rendering of a word or words, e.g., the logotype DANA within the Dana Diamond. It
cannot be set in standard typefaces. The Dana logotype is always joined with the chevrons in the approved
configuration.

Luminance Lightness
The highest of the individual RGB values plus the lowest of the individual RGB values, divided by two; a component
of a Hue-Saturation-Lightness image.

Midtone
Tonal value of dot, located approximately halfway between the highlight value and the shadow value in a grayscale
or CMYK image.

Minimum and Maximum Sizes
The traditional Dana Diamond minimum size is 5/89 wide (excluding white border, if present) and the “dimensional”
Dana Diamond minimum size is 19 wide. There are no maximum size restrictions.

Moiré Pattern (mor•a)
An undesirable pattern in color printing, resulting from incorrect screen angles of overprinting halftones. Moiré
patterns can be minimized with the use of proper screen angles. It is typically the responsibility of printers or
service providers to create proper screen angles.

Pantone®
The company who makes the Pantone® Matching System, a standard color-matching system used by printers and graphic
designers for inks, papers and other materials. A PMS color is a standard color defined by percentage mixtures of
different primary inks.

Pantone® Process Blue
The name of a spot ink color used to represent “Dana Blue” in certain printing applications. Differs from Process Cyan, and is not interchangeable.

Pixel
A single dot on a computer display or in a digital image.

PICT File Format
A standard file format for exchanging graphics or image information developed by Apple Computer. Capable of holding
both objectoriented and bitmapped images. It is supported by all graphics programs that run on Macintosh computers.

PMS (Pantone® Matching System)
A universal color monitoring system used to accurately designate specific colors in printing. Also referred to as PMS® (Pantone Matching System) colors.

PPI (Pixels Per Inch)
In computer graphics, the measurement of the resolution of an electronic image. The more pixels per inch, the more
digital information is contained in the image.

PostScript
Type fonts, invented by Adobe Systems, that look great on high-resolution printers. The fonts come in two parts: one part is the screen font used for display. The screen font references a second file called the printer font which mathematically describes the font when printed to a PostScript® printer. For professional results, use PostScript® Type 1 fonts.

Primary Brand
A Dana brand approved by the Executive Committee which meets the criteria for a brand to be primary.

Primary Brand Criteria
Executive-Committee-approved criteria for a brand to be primary.

Primary Brand Logotype
Artwork provided by Corporate Communications, and approved by the Executive Committee, for use as identification
for primary brands.

Primary Brand Product Logotype
Artwork provided by Corporate Communications, and approved by the Executive Committee, for use as product
identification for primary brand marketing applications.

Printer Resolution
The amount of detail a printer or imagesetter will reproduce, measured in lines per inch (lpi).

Process Color
The four color pigments; (C)yan, (M)agenta, (Y)ellow, and Blac(K) used in full-color printing.

Raster
Raster images are resolution dependent (the opposite of vector graphics). Because they contain built-in resolution,
raster images tend to have much larger file sizes than vector-based bitmaps. Anything saved out of Photoshop, or
similar photo editing programs, falls into this category.

Resample
To change the resolution of an image. Resampling down discards pixel information in an image; resampling up adds pixel information through interpolation. Resampling up is not recommended, as the computer program can only guess at what pixels to add to an image. It is always better to discard digital information than to add it.

Resolution
The number of dots per inch (dpi) in an image or the number of lines per inch (lpi) used by an output device. The higher the resolution, the smoother the appearance of text or graphics.

RGB (Red, Green, Blue)
The basic additive color model used for color display, as on a computer or video monitor.

SBU (Strategic Business Unit)
Internal term for a portion of Dana’s organization structure.

Saturation
One of the three attributes of color, the other two being hue and brightness. Saturation is the intensity of a hue at a given lightness. The closer a color is to neutral gray or white, the less saturated the color. The farther away it is, the more saturated it is. Thus, bright red is a saturated color and pink is a less saturated color.

Screen Angle
The angle at which halftone dots are placed to avoid creating a moiré pattern when several screens overlap.

Screen Frequency
The density of dots on a halftone or CMYK screen, commonly measured in lines per inch (lpi). Also known as screen
ruling.

Shadow
The darkest part of an image, represented in a halftone or CMYK screen by the largest dots.

Subsidiary
Organizations affiliated with Dana in which Dana has 50% equity.

Thumbnails
Miniature pictures that represent larger images.

TIFF (Tag Image File Format)
A neutral format used for exchanging bitmapped images (usually scans) between applications.

Trademark
A name, symbol, or other device used to identify or distinguish a company and/or its products and services from those of others. Properly used, a trademark can become and remain the property of the user and cannot be used by others in a manner that will cause confusion.

TrueType® Font
A format that was developed by Apple Computer and the Microsoft Corporation to replace bitmap fonts. Now they are a
native Windows and Mac system font format. TrueType fonts have their place. They are great for designs that will appear on screen, like web work and database applications. They are also good for cross-platform consistency. Unfortunately, they suffer in quality and consistency when printing to a high resolution output device.

Typography
The method of displaying text. It covers arrangement and appearance of printed matter, such as type styles, weights, sizes, and colors.

Typography Family
The correct use of the Dana fonts, which include the Helvetica Neue family (all but the lightest weights), the Times New Roman family, and Arial, Arial Italic, and Arial Bold.

Vector
A vector (or object-oriented) graphic stores the image as mathematical formulas; images are displayed by calculating the coordinates of the end points and then drawing lines between them. Vector graphics are resolution independent and can be output to the highest quality at any scale (size). Because they contain no built-in resolution, vector graphics tend to have much smaller file sizes than raster-based bitmaps. Anything saved out of Adobe Illustrator®, Macromedia Freehand®, CorelDraw® or similar drawing programs generally fall into this category.

Watermark
The corporate mark chemically etched or “woven” into the stationery paper stock instead of the paper mill brand imprint. It adds a nice touch to Dana corporate stationery.