Introduction

This style guide is designed to serve as a resource for basic standards of word usage, grammar, and punctuation to establish Dana-specific communication standards. As we all realize, accuracy and consistency are vital when communicating Dana’s image and messages in an effective, professional manner.

We hope you will find the Dana Communications Style Guide both informative and useful. And, because the very best form of communication is interactive, we invite your comments and recommendations regarding this resource. Please forward comments directly to Corporate Communications.

The Table of Contents below will help you to navigate to different sections in this document.

Table of Contents

Glossary of Terms and Usage
General Terms
Dana Specific Terms
Accounting and Financial Terms
Investor Terms
Technology Term
Grammar and Punctuation
Dana-Specific Guidelines
Global Information
Product Glossary
Automotive Acronyms
Guide to Printed Resources
Industry References and Publications
Professional Organization
Internal Resources

 


Glossary of Terms and Usage

The Glossary of Terms and Usage provides guidelines for proper word usage and style. Entries not followed by text merely indicate the correct U.S. spelling of the given term.

This glossary is organized into five segments. The General Terms section provides usage standards embraced by many journalists and other global communications professionals. Of course, some terminology is particular to Dana Incorporated, and the Dana-Specific Terms section provides related usage standards. Finally, this glossary contains terminology specific to the accounting, information technology, and legal disciplines.


General Terms

academic degrees
Academic degrees should only be used when necessary to establish a person’s credentials. When possible, avoid abbreviating degrees by integrating the degree into the sentence. The formal “Bachelor of Arts” is capitalized, whereas “bachelor’s degree” is lowercase. See also bachelor’s degree and master’s degree.

addresses
Abbreviate terms such as “Ave.” “Blvd.” and “St.” only with a numbered address: 1600 Reynard St. Spell these words out when used without a number: Reynard Street. These three terms are the only ones that can be abbreviated. Related terms such as “alley,” “drive,” “road” and “terrace” must always be spelled out. Always use numerical figures for an address number: 9 Foxlair Drive. Spell out and capitalize First through Ninth when referring to a street name. Dana’s Corporate Headquarters is located at 3939 Technology Drive.

affect, effect
Generally, “affect” is the verb. The interest-rate hike affected the stock price. “Effect” is the noun. The rate hike had a significant effect. Effect, as a verb, means to cause or bring about. He was the type of manager who could effect change.

ages
Always use numerals. The policy was 20 years old. When preceding a noun, hyphenate. The 20-year-old policy was a good one.

all right
There is no such word as “alright.”

a.m., p.m.
Always lowercase with periods. There is a space between the numeral preceding a.m. or p.m. and the abbreviation. The office closed at 5 p.m.

annual, biannual, biennial, semiannual
Annual is every year. Don’t use “first” with it (if it’s the first time, it can’t be annual). Biannual and semiannual mean twice a year. Biennial means every two years.

automaker

autoworker

bachelor’s degree

because, since
“Because” is used to denote a cause-and-effect relationship. He did it because he was told to do so. “Since” denotes a timeframe. He hadn’t eaten since 11:30 a.m.

brand names
Always capitalize. Be careful to note that many common terms are actually brand names, e.g., Band-Aid®, Kleenex®, Xerox®, etc. All Dana brands and sub-brands should be used as an adjective modifying a noun, e.g., Spicer® axle, Victor Reinz® gasket, etc. Dana is the company and Spicer is the brand. Do not refer to a brand as Dana Spicer, it should be Dana’s brand, Spicer.

capital, capitol
“Capital” typically refers to the city in which a seat of government is located. “Capitol” refers to a building. “Capitol” is capitalized when used in conjunction with the building in Washington, D.C., or a specific state capitol building, e.g., U.S. Capitol, Capitol Square, but “capital” is not generally capitalized.

carmaker

cents
For amounts less than a dollar, use numerals. He had only 5 cents in his pocket. For amounts greater than a dollar, use a dollar sign and decimals. The lunch cost $6.25.

cents per share
Rules from “cents” entry above apply. Exceptions are made in tabular formats, such as earnings releases and annual reports.

collective nouns
If the collective noun is considered a group, the verb and pronoun are singular. Dana has a tradition of valuing its people. If the collective noun is considered as individuals acting on their own, the verb and pronoun are plural. Dana people have been actively involved in their communities. Note: This entry is U.S. specific.

complement, compliment
“Complement” is synonymous with the word “supplement.”
“Compliment” refers to an expression of appreciation.

compose, comprise
“Compose” means to put together. Operations in more than 25 nations compose Dana’s international resources. To “comprise” is to include. Dana comprises several core businesses.

couple of
The preposition “of” is required. It’s never, “a couple axles.”

dates
Always use arabic numerals. The big meeting was set for January 14. When expressing the year, dates should be set off by commas. Jan. 14, 1993, was a cold day. When no date appears, commas are not necessary. January 1993 was a cold month.

dimensions
Use arabic numerals and spell out words such as “inches,” “feet,” “yards,” etc.

distances
Use figures for units of 10 and above; spell out lesser units. Due to fatigue, he walked eight miles of the 26-mile run. Be conscientious of international material. Use metric conversions with parentheses as appropriate.

dollars
Use the arabic figure in conjunction with a dollar sign, unless referring to amounts without a specific figure or in very casual references. He wore $500 shoes, but refused to loan her a couple of dollars for lunch.

e-
Use lowercase “e” with a hyphen to designate “electronic”, unless it is at beginning of sentence. E-commerce is an important topic. He led the e-business initiative. Download our e-book.

e.g., i.e.
These abbreviations are commonly confused. The abbreviation “e.g.” means “for example,” while “i.e.” means “in essence” or “that is.”

email
Acceptable for electronic mail. Do not use “email” as a verb.

engine, motor
These terms are not synonymous. An engine produces power, while a motor receives power.

ensure, insure
To ensure something is to guarantee it. To insure something is to cover it with insurance.

farther, further
“Farther” refers to distance. After being re-routed by the airline, she was farther from her destination than when she began. “Further” indicates that something is more distant in degree, time, or space. Nothing could be further from the truth.

fewer, less
If you can quantify the items being compared, use “fewer.” If not, use “less.” Michigan had fewer fans at the game than Ohio State. The Buckeyes had less experience than the Wolverines.

in, into
“In” refers to location. Jim was in his office. “Into” refers to motion. Jane walked into Jim’s office.

Incorporated
Generally abbreviated and capitalized when used as part of a formal corporate name. Mack Trucks, Inc., is a member of the Volvo Group. Defer to the guidelines of the legal entity. The formal name of the company is Dana Incorporated; however, referring to Dana Incorporated as simply “Dana” is acceptable and encouraged when used in a non-legal manner. References to “Dana Holding Corporation” should be discontinued. Dana Incorporated on first reference should always be spelled out. Review Dana Brand Standards Company Name.

it’s, its
“Its” is possessive. Dana values its people. “It’s” is the contraction for “it is” or “it has.”

job titles
Capitalize formal titles appearing prior to a name. Plant Manager John Smith delivered the keynote address. Lowercase such titles after the name. John Smith, plant manager of the Townsville facility, met with his team.

judgment
Never judgement.

lay, lie
To “lie” is to recline. To “lay” is to cause to recline or to place.

like, as
In general, use “like” to compare nouns and pronouns. She looked like a beauty queen. Use “as” when comparing to phrases or clauses that contain a verb. Ted walked as if his pants were on fire. “Like” and “such as” are also frequently misused. Dana makes products such as driveshafts and gaskets.

master’s degree
Master’s degree in Business Administration is preferred to MBA. Do not capitalize. Dana’s chairman earned his master’s degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.

mean, median
The “mean” designates the middle point between two extremes. It is not synonymous with an average, which is arrived at by totaling a series and dividing the sum by the number of items in the series. The “median” is the middle number of points in a series arranged in order of size.

media
In reference to communication outlets (newspapers, television, and radio stations, etc.), as well as forms of communication, the word is plural. The media are relentless in the pursuit of news.

miles per gallon
The abbreviation mpg (no periods) is acceptable on second reference.

miles per hour
The abbreviation mph (no periods) is acceptable in all references.

nationalities and races
In general, usage should be avoided, but if necessary, capitalize proper names, e.g., African American, French Canadian, etc.

numerals
Spell out numerals that begin a sentence. Spell out numerals between zero and nine. Use numerals to express values of 10 and above. Use numerals in percentages at all times.

ordinals
In general, spell out first through ninth, and use figures for 10th and above. An exception to this rule is the use of figures when part of a formal name. He was proud to represent the 1st Ward.

over, more than
“Over” refers to a position. The jet flew over the mountain. “More than” refers to an amount. He had more than $10 in his wallet.

percent and percentage
One word. Spell out in text, use % in headlines and tables.

pickup
Use light truck when possible.

prepositions
The following prepositions should appear in lowercase when used in headlines, even those employing initial caps (unless the preposition is the first word):

above
across
after
against
along
among
around
at
before
behind
below
beneath
besides
between
but
by
down
during
for
from
inside
into
like
near
of
off
on
onward
over
through 
throughout
to
toward
under
until
up
upward
with
within
without

principal, principle
“Principal” means first, highest, or foremost in importance. “Principle” refers to a basic truth or standard.

publication names
Italicize the names of magazines, newspapers, and books. Enclose the titles of articles, speeches, etc., in quotations.

ratios
Use arabic numerals and hyphens. Dana outperformed its competitors by a ratio of 2-to-1.

registered marks
Use superscript TM, SM, or ® as appropriate in first reference. Spicer® driveshafts are well-known and respected. If you have questions regarding whether a term is a registered trademark, contact the Dana Law Department’s Intellectual Property Department.

state names
Spell out the names of U.S. states when they stand alone in text. Abbreviate, when appearing with a city name, as referred to in the next section.

state abbreviations
Most state names may be abbreviated in conjunction with the name of a city, county, town, or village. Eight states are never abbreviated. These are: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas, and Utah. Also: District of Columbia

While Postal Service abbreviations are preferred when addressing letters or packages, they are not appropriate in other written materials. Associated Press state abbreviations are preferred and should appear as follows:

Ala.
Ariz.
Ark.
Calif.
Colo.
Conn.
Del.
Fla.
Ga.
Ill.
Ind.
Kan.
Ky.
La.
Md.
Mass.
Mich.
Minn.
Miss.
Mo.
Mont.
Neb.
Nev.
N.H.
N.J.
N.M.
N.Y.
N.C.
N.D.
Okla.
Ore.
Pa.
R.I.
S.C.
S.D.
Tenn.
Vt.
Va.
Wash.
W.Va.
Wis.
Wyo.

that, which
Use “that” to introduce restrictive clauses. The Dana product that shows the most profit potential will likely be the subject of great interest. Use “which” to introduce non-restrictive clauses (those that explain further). The Dana plant, which is producing 1,000 components a day, was established in 1988.

Tier I, Tier II, etc.

times
Use arabic numerals except for noon and midnight (not 12:00 a.m. or 12:00 p.m.). He was scheduled to attend the meeting from noon to 2:30 p.m. Do not use “00” for times at the top of the hour, e.g., 6 p.m.

toward
Not “towards.”

trademarks
Use trademarks as adjectives, not nouns. Note the first usage of a trademarked item within a document with the appropriate trademark symbol (also note first usage within headlines and captions if applicable). To learn more about Dana trademarks, please visit danabrandstandards.com.

unique
The word “unique” indicates that something has no like or equal. Therefore, there are not degrees of uniqueness, and claims of uniqueness often do not correspond to the definition. As such, the word should be used with careful consideration.

United States
Spell out when used as a noun. Abbreviate (U.S.) only when used as an adjective.

versus
Abbreviate as “vs.” in all uses. The words, “compared to” are preferred in most cases.

Washington, D.C.

weights
Use arabic numerals. The baby weighed 7 pounds, 6 ounces.

who, whom
Generally, use “who” to refer to someone who has been the actor, and “whom” to refer to someone who has been the object of an action. He was a 20-year Dana veteran who had never missed a day of work. The plant manager, to whom the job was new, enjoyed the challenge.

year-end

yearlong

years
Use arabic numerals without commas. 1964. Use an “s” without an apostrophe to indicate decades. The 1960s. When abbreviating a decade, an apostrophe should point back toward the missing numerals. Some believe the ’80s were a period of great excess.

ZIP code
ZIP is the acronym for Zoning Improvement Plan and should thus appear in all caps.


Dana-Specific Terms

Every company has its own terminology, as well as its own guidelines for usage with regard to selected industry terms. The following are several Dana-specific terms and related usage guidelines.

business units
Dana’s four market-focused global business units are the Light Vehicle Driveline Technologies, Commercial Vehicle Driveline Technologies, Power Technologies, Off-Highway Drive and Motion Technologies.

Leadership Team
The Dana management group responsible for corporate strategies and partnership relations, as well as the development of Dana’s people, policies, and philosophies.

module
Dana defines a module as a collection of components assembled and supplied as a single unit. Modules may be combined into systems.

OneDana
Dana’s Intranet portal. The OneDana portal may be accessed internally at: http://one.dana.com

system
Dana defines a system as a set of components, interfaces, or software that works together to perform a key function of a vehicle. One or more of a vehicle’s modules may be contained in a system.

webphonet
Webphonet is Dana’s web-based phone and facility search engine.


Accounting and Financial Terms

Numbers are vital to accurately expressing Dana’s performance both internally and to outside constituencies. The following are several key accounting and financial terms and measures used by Dana.

assets
Cash and other physical items or rights that can be converted to cash or consumed in the production of goods and services.

balance sheet
A listing of assets, liabilities, and the resulting net worth of an organization.

basic earnings per share (EPS)
Net income divided by the weighted average number of basic common shares outstanding during the period.

basis point
One one-hundredth (0.01) of one percent. Basis points are typically used to express yield differences among fixed income securities.

bond ratings
Grades assigned by credit-rating agencies to corporate and municipal debt securities, based on the borrower’s expected ability to repay. Credit-rating firms assign grades to borrowers. Standard & Poor’s, for example, has 10 grades, ranging from its top grade, “AAA,” downward to “D,” signifying a security that is in payment default.

capital spend
The cost of property, plant, and equipment, with a useful life of more than one year, purchased during the period.

depreciation
The reduction in the value of capital goods due to wear, age, and/or obsolescence.

diluted earnings per share
Net income (adjusted) divided by the weighted average number of basic common shares plus potentially dilutive shares outstanding during the period.

EBITDA
Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA) is an approximate measure of a company’s operating cash flow based on data from the company’s income statement. Calculated by looking at earnings before the deduction of interest expenses, taxes, depreciation, and amortization. This earnings measure is of particular interest in cases where companies have large amounts of fixed assets which are subject to heavy depreciation charges (such as manufacturing companies). Since the income tax and financing effects on company earnings do not factor into EBITDA, it is a good way of comparing companies within and across industries.

effective tax rate
Effective tax rate is determined by dividing tax expense by income before income taxes in a given period. For example, if a taxpayer recorded tax expense of $25,000 on income before income taxes of $100,000, the effective tax rate would be 25 percent. The effective tax rate is a useful tool in tax planning and provides a quick measure of the effectiveness of a company’s tax strategy.

equity investments
Equity investments are generally those investments in other companies or entities in which we hold a 20 to 50 percent ownership interest. The accounting for these investments – the equity method – generally consists of a single line on the balance sheet and a single line in the income statement representing the proportionate share of the net assets and net income of the investee, respectively.

euro
The euro is the official monetary unit of 19 member nations of the European Union, which includes Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, and Spain.

net income
Net profit, or earnings.

net book value
The carrying value of an asset, reduced by valuation allowances or accumulated depreciation or amortization.

price-earnings ratio
The price of a share of stock divided by earnings per share for a 12-month period.

return on invested capital (ROIC)
Annualized profit after tax, plus the after-tax amount of interest, divided by total equity plus short- and long-term debt.

return on sales (ROS)
Financial return on sales (ROS) is calculated by dividing net income by net sales.

sales
The revenue a company receives for the goods and services it sells.


Investor Terms

bear market
A period during which the stock market experiences a steady decline in stock prices (traditionally for three consecutive months).

bull market
A period during which the stock market experiences a steady increase in stock prices (traditionally for three consecutive months).

buy-side analysts
These individuals represent major institutional investors.

dividend
The per-share payment that a corporation distributes to its shareholders as a return for their investment in its stock.

Dow Jones® Industrial Average (DJIA)
An index of common stocks composed of 30 major U.S. industrial companies. The DJIA is called an “average” because it originally was computed by adding up stock prices and dividing by the number of stocks. (The very first average price of industrial stocks in 1896 was 40.94.)

market capitalization
The value of a company’s outstanding shares, as measured by the number of shares multiplied by the current price.

New York Stock Exchange® (NYSE)
The largest stock exchange in the United States, the NYSE’s parent company is the Intercontinental Exchange.

sell-side analysts
Financial professionals who follow many major companies closely, conducting research and developing financial models aimed at evaluating both near-term performance and longer-term prospects.

Standard & Poor’s 500 Index (S&P 500®)
An index of common stocks weighted by market value rates (total market value is determined by multiplying the price of a stock by the number of shares outstanding).

Wall Street
The financial district in Manhattan, New York City, and the street where the New York Stock Exchange, American Stock Exchange, and many banks and brokerages are located. Often used to refer to the investment community in general.


Technology Terms

For further information regarding information technology terminology as it pertains to Dana Incorporated, please click on the Information Technology tab on the OneDana portal home page. With the growing presence of information technology amid our everyday activities, it is important that Dana communicators use related terminology in an accurate and consistent manner.

e-mail

firewall
A protection of the company’s internal computer network against unauthorized access.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a method of moving files between two Internet sites.

homepage
The entry webpage of a website and often the gateway to the rest of its webpages and information.

HTML
Hypertext markup language (HTML) is the language required to author pages for the World Wide Web.

HTTP
Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is the manner in which pages are transferred over the internet or intranet.

internet
A matrix of networks that connects computers of all types throughout the world via high-speed transmission lines. Always lowercase.

intranet
A network of computers within a corporation or portion of a corporation. Always lowercase.

online

social media
Websites and applications that are used by large groups of people for communication and sharing of information. It is a term that loosely applies to many different companies. Always lowercase.

toolbar

URL
The uniform resource locator (URL) is simply the address, or location, of a web page.

webcast

webpage
A single, usually hypertext document on the World Wide Web that can incorporate text, graphics, sounds, etc.

website
The collection of webpages regarded as a single entity


Grammar and Punctuation

The Dana Communications Style Guide is not intended to serve as a grammar and punctuation primer. Instead, this section offers basic information regarding a few of the most common grammar and punctuation issues confronted by communicators. For items not addressed herein, please defer to the Associated Press Stylebook.

ampersand
Always use the word “and” instead of an ampersand symbol (&).

apostrophe
To form a possessive with most words, simply add an apostrophe and the letter “s” to the end of the word. In words ending with “s” or “x,” simply add an apostrophe to the end of the word. Charles Dickens’ novels include many classics. When dealing with a pair of items, only the second one requires an apostrophe to form a possessive. John and Jane’s mother was recovering nicely from her illness. With regard to the pronoun “it,” the possessive case of the pronoun “it” is “its.” The word “it’s” is the contraction for “it is” or “it has.”

bulleted lists
For bulleted lists, a period should be used only if the information is presented as a complete sentence. If the information is not in the form of a complete sentence, no period is needed. To be consistent throughout the document, use the same format in a single document to avoid confusion.

colons
A colon can be used after a grammatically complete lead-in sentence that announces a subsequent enumeration, explanation, illustration, or extended quotation. The markets Dana serves are as follows: automotive, commercial vehicle, and off-highway.

commas
In addition to the basic rules regarding comma usage (which can be found in virtually any grammar textbook), please note that Dana’s Corporate Communications Department employs what is more commonly known as the serial comma (comma between the final two items in a series). Dana is focused on the automotive, commercial vehicle, and off-highway markets.

dashes
Dashes should be used to interrupt the flow of a sentence. There should be a space on both sides of the dash. The customer was happy – nearly giddy, in fact – about the new product.

ellipsis periods
Ellipsis periods indicate that a word or words have been eliminated from a passage. They should be treated like a three-letter word, preceded and followed by a space, except at the end of a sentence, where four periods are used consecutively. Abraham Lincoln said, “We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain … and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

hyphens
Hyphens are used to connect words that form a compound adjective, which modifies another word.  There should not be a space on either side of a hyphen. Many of Dana’s products address the growing light-truck marketplace.

quotation marks and punctuation
Generally, when using quotation marks, periods and commas should be placed inside the quote mark, while colons and semi-colons should be placed outside. Placement for both question marks and exclamation points is dependent on the situation.

semicolons
A semicolon is used to join two independent clauses. Dana people contribute hundreds of thousands of ideas annually; they are known for their innovations. Additionally, semicolons can be used to convey greater separation than a comma, but less than a period. For example, they may be employed to distinguish between items in a list containing multiple commas. Dana’s Off-Highway group has European facilities in Brugge, Belgium; Györ, Hungary; and Arco, Montano Lucino, and Rovereto, Italy.

spacing before and after /
When using a “/” in a sentence, there should be a space placed between each word and the “/”. Let me know if you have any questions / comments.

using www. in front of websites
It is not necessary to use “www.” at the beginning of a URL. Use camel-case capitalization for the URL, e.g. DanaAftermarket.com.


Dana-Specific Guidelines

In most style matters, Corporate Communications defers to the Associated Press Stylebook, the industry standard for journalists and communication professionals. Of course, some style matters are not an issue of “right or wrong,” but instead involve choices. In these cases, our goal is consistency in usage. The following are several style choices employed and endorsed by Corporate Communications:

genderless language
Genderless language is the standard in today’s business environment. When using genderless language, use plurals or specific descriptions to avoid words such as he, she, and it.

Gender biased: The operator examines the part. He then sends it to the finishing area.

Genderless: The operator examines the part and then sends it to the finishing area.

honorifics (Mr., Ms., Miss, and Mrs.)
Dana news releases employ the honorifics “Mr.” and “Ms.” on second and subsequent references. Do not use “Miss” or “Mrs.,” unless the individual wishes to be specified as such.

two spaces after period
Periods ending a sentence should be followed by two spaces prior to the beginning of the next sentence. An exception to this rule occurs when writing copy specifically for the websites, social media, advertising and collateral. In which case there is only one space between the period and the beginning of the next sentence.


Global Information

Dana Countries

Dana Corporation has operations in the following nations (shown in the regions in which we administer them):

Asia Pacific

Australia
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Taiwa
Thailand
Singapore

Europe

Austria
Belgium
France
Germany
Hungary
Italy
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Denmark
Finland
Ireland
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Russia

North America

Canada
México
United States

South America

Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
Uruguay
Venezuela

 

The following are several globally-oriented terms and definitions:

ANCOM
The Andean Common Market is a South American trade bloc composed of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.

ASEAN
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional association encompassing Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Benelux
A customs union between Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

BRIC
Refers to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China.

Colombia, Columbia
The South American country is Colombia. The city in Missouri, U.S., is Columbia.

Far East
Consists of China, Japan, North and South Korea, Taiwan, and eastern regions of Russia.

Great Britain, United Kingdom
Great Britain consists of England, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as about a dozen small islands. Ireland is independent of both Great Britain and the United Kingdom.

Mercosur
South American trade agreement established by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

NAFTA
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a free trade agreement encompassing Canada, Mexico, and the United States.


Product Glossary

axle
A beam supporting a vehicle on which one or more wheels turn. Axles also house and support the differential, shafts, and wheels that propel the vehicle. Axles can be “driving,” conveying power to turn the wheels, or “dead,” merely supporting the vehicle’s weight and allowing the wheels to turn. Axles are designed to suit a variety of suspension systems. Beam axles are traditional, but many vehicles now utilize axle assemblies for independent suspension systems.

brake
A mechanism that diminishes or prevents the motion of another device.

chassis
The mechanical parts of a vehicle attached to a structural frame, including axles, brakes, driveshafts, and suspension components.

differential
A device – usually made of gears – that divides the torque between a vehicle’s driving wheels and permits the wheels to turn at different speeds. This is especially important when negotiating a corner, as the inside wheels turn more slowly than the outside wheels.

distribution
The sale of aftermarket or replacement parts.

driveline
An assembly of one or more driveshafts, power transfer unit (PTU) and differentials / axles transmitting power from the transmission to the vehicle wheels.

driveshaft / propshaft
An assembly of one or two universal joints connected to a solid or tubular shaft member used to transmit power from the transmission to the differential; sometimes called the “propeller or prop shaft.”

drivetrain
All of a vehicle’s components that efficiently deliver power from the engine to the wheels including transmission, power transfer unit (PTU) axles / differentials, and any interconnecting shafts.

engine
A device that converts one source of energy into mechanical energy, and uses fuel to produce mechanical power.

fuel cell
An electrochemical device that converts the energy of a chemical reaction into electricity. Hyphenate when modifying another word, e.g., “fuel-cell technology.”

gasket
A thin layer of material placed between two surfaces or joints to make a tight seal. Cylinder head and exhaust manifold gaskets are now made from a variety of high-tech materials, including composites and multi-layered steel.

independent suspension
A suspension system in which either wheel on an axle can undergo its normal vertical motions without directly influencing the motions of the opposing wheel.

module
A collection of components assembled and supplied as a single unit.

planetary axle
A traditional drive axle with two additional sets of planetary gearing in addition to the ring and pinion. The additional gearing provides increased torque.

powershift transmission
A transmission, primarily used for off-highway applications, in which gears are always in contact – allowing clutch packs to engage or disengage “on the move” so the machine can continue working without decelerating during shifting.

service parts
Genuine replacement parts and services supported by numerous Dana brands.

transaxle
A transmission and differential combined in one integrated assembly. The transmission is a gearbox with a number of selectable ratios, used to match the engine’s RPM and torque to differing vehicle requirements.

transfer case
An auxiliary transmission mounted behind the main transmission. Used to divide engine power and transfer it to both front and rear differentials, either full-time or part-time.

universal joint, u-joint
A mechanical device which transmits torque and/or rotary motion between two shafts that are not in a straight line.

 


Automotive Acronyms

Avoiding “Alphabet Soup”
Acronyms are commonplace in automotive industry communications. While occasionally necessary to avoid lengthy or repetitive sentences, acronyms are best avoided when possible.

Plural and possessive Forms
To form the plural form of an acronym, simply add the letter “s” (there is no need for an apostrophe). Several OEMs took part in the trade show. To form the possessive form of an acronym, employ an apostrophe and the letter “s.”

The following is a brief list defining a number of automotive acronyms.

AIAG
Automotive Industry Action Group

APQP
Advanced Product Quality Planning

BIC
Best-in-class

CAD
Computer-aided drafting

CAE
Computer-aided engineering

CAFÉ
Corporate average fuel economy (U.S. federal standards regulating vehicular fuel economy).

FMA
Failure mode analysis

FMEA
Failure mode and effects analysis

GVW
Gross vehicle weight. A light truck has a GVW of 19,500 pounds (8,845 kilograms) or less. Medium trucks have a GVW between 19,501 and 33,000 pounds. Heavy trucks have a GVW of 33,001 or more pounds (14,969 or more kilograms).

ISO
International Standards Organization. ISO 9000 is a family of quality management and quality assurance standards. ISO 14000 is a family of standards relating to environmental management systems.

JAMA
Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association

JIT
Just-in-time

MEMA
Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association. “Manufacturers” is plural, not possessive.

NADA
National Automobile Dealers Association. Dealers is plural, not possessive.

NIST
National Institute of Standards and Technology

NVH
Noise, vibration, and harshness. Helping vehicle manufacturers minimize NVH is one of Dana’s primary goals.

OEM
Original-equipment manufacturer.

PDCA
Plan-do-check-act

PPAP
Production part approval process

PPM
Parts per million

QS-9000
Quality system requirement of Ford, and General Motors (based on ISO 9000)

SAE
Society of Automotive Engineers

SIC
Standard industrial classification

SQA
Supplier quality assurance

SQI
Supplier quality improvement

SUV
Sport-utility vehicle

TOC
Theory of constraints

TPM
Total productive maintenance

VA/VE
Value analysis/value engineering

 


Guide to Resources

Printed Recommended References

The Associated Press Stylebook
The Elements of Style by Strunk & White
Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 12th Edition (merriam-webster.com)
The New York Public Library Desk Reference
Roget’s II: The New Thesaurus, Third Edition
Writing-Oriented Periodicals
Editor & Publisher (mediainfo.com)
■ Lawrence Ragan Communications, Inc. (ragan.com)

 


Industry References and Publications

Automotive Engineering
sae.org

Automotive Industries
ai-online.com

Automotive News
autonews.com

Automotive World
automotiveworld.com

International AutoWeek
autoweek.com

IndustryWeek
industryweek.com

Motor Age
motorage.com

OEM Off-Highway Engineering
sae.org

Ward’sAuto
wardsauto.com

Industry Associations

AIAG
Automotive Industry Action Group
aiag.org

HDMA
Heavy Duty Manufacturers Association
hdma.org

JAMA
Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association
jama.org

MEMA
Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association
mema.org

NADA
National Automobile Dealers Association
nada.com

NAM
National Association of Manufacturers
nam.org

OESA
Original Equipment Suppliers Association
oesa.org

SAE
Society of Automotive Engineers
sae.org

TRALA
Truck Renting and Leasing Association
trala.org


Professional Organizations

Professional organizations offer support and training for communicators.

The following are several popular communications-oriented organizations:

APRC
Automotive Public Relations Council
oesa.org

AWC
Association for Women in Communications (formerly WICI)
womcom.org

IABC
International Association of Business Communicators
iabc.com

NIRI
National Investor Relations Institute
niri.org

PRSA
Public Relations Society of America
prsa.org


Internal Resources

Corporate Communications
http://one.dana.com
The Corporate Communications home page serves as the entry point to the Dana employee portal.

Managers’ Communications Resource
http://one.dana.com
Information, tools, guidelines, archives, and links to assist managers in communicating effectively with their employees.

Media Room
http://dana.mediaroom.com/
Dana’s Internet News Room contains current news releases, clips from national and trade media, images, Dana contacts, and much more.

myDana Portal
http://one.dana.com
Dana’s employee portal, contains many other valuable resources for communicators.